Monday, May 25, 2020

Punishment Is The Punishment An Individual - 948 Words

Retribution can be described with these two words: Deserved Punishment. Retribution is the punishment an individual receives contingent upon the severity of their wrong doings. They must â€Å"pay their debts†. The authors of the text â€Å"Criminal Justice in America† mentions that if the government fails to sentence the individual to an appropriate amount of punishment, society will take the situation into their own hands (Cole, Smith and DeJong 277). If a murderer receives 5 years in prison, the family of the victim(s) would feel like justice wasn’t served and would probably resort to their own type of retribution (Cole, Smith and DeJong 277). Punishment is the ethical response to harm inflicted on the society. What this means is, if society†¦show more content†¦As rational individuals, we weigh the consequences of our actions versus the benefits of our actions. The more severe the punishment of the potential crime, the higher chance that individuals will be deterred. If a petty thief receives an 8 year minimum sentence along with a high fine, the severity of this punishment will deter others from committing the same crime. Also, the severity of the punishment of the first time offense must be severe enough to deter the same individual from committing another crime. The downside of the deterrence theory is that it assumes that everyone thinks before they act (Cole, Smith and DeJong 278). Individuals who are mentally unstable or have psychological problems aren’t accounted for. Another major goal of punishment is incapacitation. Incapacitation deprives an offender from the ability to commit crimes by detaining them in prison. Both deterrence and incapacitation focuses on the potential of a crime occurring in the future. But with incapacitation, the offender is kept in prison and won’t be given another chance in society until they have proven that they will no longer commit crimes (Cole, Smith and DeJong 278). Being punished by incapacitation is dependent upon the nature of the crimes committed in the past and how extensive the offender’s criminal record is (Cole, Smith and DeJong 278). There are some difficulties with this form of punishment because there is

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Kate Chopin s The Awakening - 935 Words

Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Awakening† can arguably be considered a feminist piece, but regardless of whether it is or not, the short story unmistakably describes how life was for women in the late 1800’s. Her story is a great example of the sexist views of the time and existing social roles for each gender. The literature includes a large interplay between society and gender roles, which affected the reader’s response to the plot and other literary devices such as imagery back then and even today. Chopin creates a round character, Edna Pontellier, who is the main character of â€Å"The Awakening† in a way that divides her readers between those who find her disagreeable and those who find her inspiring or even normal and honest. Those who find her obnoxious usually do so because of her thoughts revealed to the reader admitting that â€Å"The children appeared before her like antagonists who had overcome her; who had overpowered and sought to drag her i nto the soul’s slavery for the rest of her days† (Chopin 171). For the same reason she is an honest character that the reader can trust, she is disliked for not conforming to social roles, especially the ones unwritten about how to be a mother. Unlike the ideal mother, Madame Ratignolle Edna proclaims to her and the reader: â€Å"‘I would give up the unessential; I would give my money, I would give my life for my children; but I wouldn’t give myself’† (Chopin 73). These expectations of Edna, to give everything up for her kids and to always think theShow MoreRelatedKate Chopin s The Awakening1553 Words   |  7 Pagesare evident throughout The Awakening by Kate Chopin. Chopin uses contrasting characters such as Edna Pontellier and Adele Ratignolle to further embody the differing aspects of feminism. Adele Ratignolle represents the ideal woman of the time period, a mindless housewife working to serve her family, whereas Edna signifies an inde pendent and daring woman who does not conform to society’s beliefs. These two women’s differing characteristics and personalities allow Chopin to further compare and contrastRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening1497 Words   |  6 PagesEdna Proves that Society Does Not Control Her In Kate Chopin s novella, the awakening, Chopin portrays a story of how the protagonist, Edna Pontellier, undergoes a realization that she has been dumbfounded by the way society assert roles for women. Mrs. Pontellier s awakening stirs up issues in her marriage with her husband. For Mr. Pontellier does not understand why his wife is acting different as someone who does not share the values and duties that society withholds women to. Edna even fallsRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening Essay1450 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The beginning of things, of a world especially, is necessarily vague, tangled, chaotic, and exceedingly disturbing† (Chopin 67). Change: the most frightening word in the English language; it has never came quickly, never came easily, never come without casualties. Throughout history, countless revolutions have fought with blood, sweat, and tears for the acceptance of new ideas to foster change within mainstream culture. Naturally, there is always a resilient resistance to revolution, the norm thatRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening1875 Words   |  8 Pageswomen s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.† The Awakening, by Kate Chopin, was written in 1890 during the height of the women s suffrage movement, and essentially the public felt that the author â€Å"went too far† due to â€Å"the sensuality† of the protagonist (Toth 1). The â€Å"male gatekeepers† that scrutinized her work saw her piece as a statement that â€Å"the husband is a drag†, and that traditional American values should be forgotten (Toth 1). In truth, Chopin did notRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening2531 Words   |  11 PagesDress to Impress Kate Chopin’s novel, The Awakening depicts sexual affairs, inner struggles, and the conquest of motherhood that most women face today. The conquest of motherhood involves the battle between being a supportive wife and selfless mother. The story revolves around the characters’ dialogue and appearances described beautifully throughout the novel by Kate Chopin. The story is a familiar one that, sadly, most women can relate to: A woman is married without knowing what true love is. HerRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening1685 Words   |  7 Pagesconforms, the inward life which questions† (Chopin 18). The Victorian Era created a clear distinguishment between male and female roles in society, where women were expected to behave feminine-like, be responsible for domestic duties and have little involvement in society. This created a heavy oppression upon females and as a result forced many of them to remain entrapped in a male dominant society, in fear of being outcasted . In the novel The Awakening, Kate Chopin depicts how Edna’s defiance of VictorianRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening1981 Words   |  8 Pagesthe 1800s The Awakening by Kate Chopin published in 1899 is a novel that can teach the true meaning of family, the importance of friendship, and the value of independence. Chopin teaches the true meaning of family by showing how Edna receives no support from her own family and struggles to succeed without them. Chopin shows the importance of friendship when Edna has no one by her side until she meets a woman named Adele and a man named Robert. The primary area that Chopin focuses on is the satisfactionRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening1198 Words   |  5 Pageswoman’s freedom is the driving force behind Kate Chopin’s contextual objections to propriety. In particular, The Awakening and â€Å"The Story of an Hour† explore the lives of women seeking marital liberation and individuality. Mrs. Chopin, who was raised in a matriarchal household, expresses her opposition to the nineteenth century patriarchal society while using her personal experiences to exemplify her fe minist views. Katherine O’Flaherty, later Kate Chopin, was born to Eliza and Thomas O’FlahertyRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening1870 Words   |  8 Pagessymbolizes the Marxist cause. A multitude books throughout history and the current day are representing the groundbreaking thoughts of Marxism, and they help to demonstrate how vile Capitalism truly is. In Kate Chopin’s The Awakening there lie countless subtleties of Marxism and its standards. Chopin skillfully injects the ideals into the novel through characters’ actions and behaviors. Three characters in particular represent the evils of Capitalism in the teachings of Marxist, and those charactersRead MoreKate Chopin s The Awakening882 Words   |  4 PagesThe article I have chosen to respond to was â€Å"Adele Ratignolle: Kate Chopin’s Feminist at Home in â€Å"The Awakening†Ã¢â‚¬  by Kathleen M. Streater. In this article, Streater argues that the feminism of Adele Ratignolle was overshadowe d by the radicalism of the main character, Edna Pontieller. Although Ratignolle was not as extreme or romantic as Pontieller, Streater argues that Ratignolle was more of an equal in the home than readers would suggest. Introduced as the â€Å"mother-woman,† Adele Ratignolle chose

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Pearl Resoning - 589 Words

Can Nobel Prize winner in literature, John Steinbeck, creator of legendary novels such as: Of Mice and Men, East of Eden and The Grapes of Wrath, be able to present a novel suitable for the grade nine English curriculum? Sadly the answer is no. The Pearl, written by Steinbeck, offers an awful writing style, a predictable storyline and horrible role models concluding to why it should be removed from the grade nine Engilish curriculum. To start off, the fashion in which the writing is presented is loaded with symbols which have potential in leaving readers such as I confused and set off to what is going on. For instance, Steinbeck’s use of songs to display emotions is unneeded because it makes understanding complicated and raises unnecessary questions on the subject of what its presence serves within the story. In addition to the awful writing style of this novel, The Pearl beholds an annoying and disappointing storyline. It seems that of every page you flip, discluding the find ing of the pearl, Kino’s life becomes more and more miserable and I expected it all to pay off in the ending but the novel left me with disappointment by giving the same negative influence. Steinbeck never seemed to think of his characters as people but as creatures who are buffeted by terrible circumstances. This brings me to my next example, The Pearl has a terrible moral sense. It seems as if the author is trying to say â€Å"do not try to improve it only leads to failure, be happy with where you are†

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Mob Monologue Essay Example For Students

The Mob Monologue Essay A monologue from the play by John Galsworthy NOTE: This monologue is reprinted from The Mob. John Galsworthy. New York: Charles Scribner\s Sons, 1914. HELEN: I\ve seena vision! I\d just fallen asleep, and I saw a plain that seemed to run into the skylikethat fog. And on it there weredark things. One grew into a body without a head, and a gun by its side. And one was a man sitting huddled up, nursing a wounded leg. He had the face of Hubert\s servant, Wreford. And then I sawHubert. His face was all dark and thin; and he hada wound, an awful wound here. The blood was running from it, and he kept trying to stop itoh! Kitby kissing it. Then I heard Wreford laugh, and say vultures didn\t touch live bodies. And there came a voice, from somewhere, calling out: Oh, God! I\m dying! And Wreford began to swear at it, and I heard Hubert say: Don\t, Wreford; let the poor fellow be! But the voice went on and on, moaning and crying out: I\ll lie here all night dyingand then I\ll die! And Wreford dragged himself along the ground; his face all devilish, like a man who\s going to kill. Still that voice went on, and I saw Wreford take up the dead ma n\s gun. Then Hubert got upon his feet, and went tottering along, so feebly, so dreadfullybut before he could reach and stop him, Wreford fired at the man who was crying. And Hubert called out: You brute! and fell right down. And when Wreford saw him lying there, he began to moan and sob, but Hubert never stirred. Then it all got black againand I could see a dark woman-thing creeping, first to the man without a head; then to Wreford; then to Hubert, and it touched him, and sprang away, and it cried out. He\s dead.

Monday, April 6, 2020

Ehics of Bid Shopping Essay Example

Ehics of Bid Shopping Essay When I began thinking of possible topics for my philosophy paper, I was looking for a topic that was interesting to me, relevant to my field of study, and also pertained to philosophy and worldviews.I am Construction Management major and, through Estimating I last year, I was introduced to a concept called bid shopping.We briefly discussed the practice of bid shopping and why it was wrong.The only reason that I could gather from my professor for bid shopping being considered wrong was that it was an assumed law that all estimators went by.Well, that wasnt enough of a reason for me so I questioned weather or not bid shopping was wrong or not; I was then accused of being unethical by my peers and my professor.On the contrary, I am a very ethical person, I just am not the type to accept something just because that is the way its always been done or because of some assumed law.Since that day in class I havent thought a great deal about the issue, however, when co! nsidering topics for th is paper, I decided that I would like to dig deeper into this issue so that I would have a good understanding of others viewpoints and then be able to form my own intelligent views on bid shopping. Lets back up for a minute; before deciding if bid shopping is ethical or not, we need a clear understanding of what it is and when it occurs.First, a little bit of estimating background is necessary.When an owner decides to build a building, he opens the building responsibilities up for bid.A general contractor then looks at the plans and specifications for the building and begins to form a bid or price to build the structure.In almost all cases, the general contractor will sub-out portions of the work to sub-contractors.These subcontractors will submit a bid to the general contractor for their portion of the work.The general contractor will then take all of the individual sub-contractor bids as well as his/her own bids and

Monday, March 9, 2020

Incorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in Capital Investment Projects.

Incorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in Capital Investment Projects. Free Online Research Papers Introduction Even though risk has many meanings, in financial sector it has a more definite and distinctive meaning. It actually refers to the situations referring to the decisions made based on certain calculations of many probabilities that certain outcome can actually materialise or when probabilities based on previous information and when we actually know statistical frequency which are known to us. In order for any investment to be meaningful a representation of how much is the risk has to be represented. Only then the cash flows of an investment will differ from what is expected in terms of money and time. Risk can be called a certain degree of uncertainty. Capital Investment Appraisal plays a huge role in the long-term successful performance of an organization. It influences strategic financial decisions dealing with past and future investments. The required rate of return has to be adjusted to provide for the additional risk involved or an adjustment should be in regard to the relevant cash flows. Various techniques used to evaluate investment opportunities are Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Present Value Payback (PVP), Accounting Rate of Return (ARR), the Profitability Index (PI) and Net Present Value (NPV). Handling risk can be considered as a complex task having major influence in fluctuating exchange rates, technology changes and unpredictability of the competition. Risk handling methods can be classified as simple risk adjustment and risk analysis. Risk analysis can be defined as a technique which identifies and assess the factors that may jeopardize the success of a project. It also helps to define preventive measures to reduce the probability of these factors from occurring and identify countermeasures to successfully deal with these constraints when they develop to avert possible negative effects on the competitiveness of the company. These include sensitivity analysis, probability analysis, scenario analysis, decision-tree analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, option pricing and capital asset pricing model (CAPM) approaches, etc. Simple risk adjustment methods have got assumptions that cannot be clearly understood and could lead decision makers to accept decisions against their original intentions even though they are simple to use. Use of risk analysis provides a systematic and logical approach to investment decision making, helps communication within the organization, and allows managerial judgment to be presented in a meaningful way. Risk analysis approach can provide useful insights into an investment project, can improves decision quality and can increases decision confidence. Sensitivity Analysis It is used in order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the cash flows. It requires the examination of the sensitivity of some variable to changes in another variable. The primary purpose of sensitivity analysis is not to quantify risk, but to establish how sensitive the NPV and the IRR are to changes in the values of key variables in the evaluation of investment projects. Its main objective is to identify the factors of uncertainty that has got impacts on a future projects return. It deals with a lot of is sampling-based analysis. A good sensitivity analysis should conduct analyses over the full range of plausible values of key parameters and their interactions, to assess how impacts change in response to changes in key parameters. Sensitivity Analysis methods should be able to: (a) Deal with a model regardless of assumptions about a Model’s linearity and additively; (b) Consider interaction effects among model input Uncertainties. (c) Cope with differences in the scale and shape of model inputs. (d) Should cope with spatial and temporal model input. (e) Evaluate the effect of an input while all other inputs are allowed to vary as well. A sampling-based sensitivity is one in which the model which is executed again and again for combinations of values sampled from the distribution of various input factors. How it’s done The most common sensitivity analysis is based on sampling. It is based on the model which is executed repeatedly for combinations of values sampled from the distribution (assumed known) of the input factors. Sampling based methods can also be used to decompose the variance of the model output. Sensitivity Analysis is performed jointly by executing the model repeatedly for combination of factor values sampled with some probability distribution. The following steps can be listed: a) Specify the target function and select the input of interest b) Assign a probability density function to the selected factors c) Generate a matrix of inputs with that distribution(s) through an appropriate design d) Evaluate the model and compute the distribution of the target function e) Select a method for assessing the influence or relative importance of each input factor on the target function. Advantages The main advantage is good compaction or aggregation of the information; Sensitivity analysis helps in identifying critical assumptions or in comparing alternative model structures. It also guide future data collections as well as detects important data criteria and optimises the tolerance of the manufactured products in terms of uncertainty parameters and optimises resource allocation thereby resulting in model simplification. Disadvantages The main disadvantages that sometimes arise are that the variables are often interdependent, which makes examining them each individually unrealistic, e.g.: changing one factor such as sales volume, will most likely affect other factors such as the selling price. And quite Often the assumptions upon which the analysis is based are made by using past experience/data which may not work out efficiently in the future. Assigning a maximum and minimum (or optimistic and pessimistic) value is open to subjective interpretation. For instance an individual’s optimistic forecast may be more conservative than that of another person performing a different part of the analysis. This sort of subjectivity can adversely affect the accuracy and overall objectivity of the analysis. Scenario analysis Scenario analysis is termed as a process of analyzing possible future events by considering alternative possible outcomes (scenarios). It is designed to allow improved decision-making by allowing more complete consideration of outcomes and their implications. It can be called as the process of estimating the expected value of a portfolio over a period of time, assuming specific changes in the values of the portfolios securities or key factors that would affect security values, such as changes in the interest rate. How it’s done It is commonly done by determining what the standard deviation of daily or monthly security returns are and then calculating what value would be expected for the portfolio if each security generated returns two or three standard deviations above and below the average return. By this way, we can have reasonable certainty that the value of a portfolio is unlikely to fall below (or rise above) a specific value during a given time period. Advantages Scenario analysis can take us from focusing on what is certain to happen to explore the range of what could happen. By defining scenarios, people have the opportunity to think about possibilities rather than what they expect to happen. This can stimulate creative ideas and solutions to the issues that arise from alternative futures. Disadvantages Oversimplification – Scenarios can tend to oversimplify an issue as the analysis must balance detail with available time and resources. Participant interaction and influence on content – The process of defining and assessing scenarios can raise sensitive issues for many participants, especially when they are from diverse backgrounds and organizations. Computer simulation Computer simulation allows the evaluation of the impact of changes in several variables simultaneously. Computer simulations can provide a lifetime of experience in a matter of seconds. Simulation has been one of prime methods used as a decision support tool in industry. Simulation is a very highly cost-effective method of testing new processes without having to carry out actual experiments. This can save enormous amounts of money, which would otherwise be spent on pilot programs, yet can produce better results much faster. One of the most popular Simulation models is the Monte Carlo simulation model. Monte Carlo simulation is a versatile method for analyzing the behaviour of some activity, plan or process that involves uncertainty. Most business activities, plans and processes are too complex for an analytical solution so they rely on repeated random sampling to compute their results. Simulation should be used when it is expensive and/or dangerous to run the real systems. How it’s done The basic steps involved are: Define the process / problem Collection of Data on various events occurring in the process. Build Computer models Repeating independent events occurring in the process, the way they would occur in real processes. The computer model uses the observed probability distribution function of each event to do so. It gives the user the flexibility to control events and parameters of the process the way he desires. Run the simulation models through several recursions with a combination of real life variability generated by the computer, and controllable factors set by the user. Observe the results and their variation and document them. Make inferences and decisions based on the results of simulation. Advantages Gain better understanding of working of a system Identify problems prior to implementation Test the potential effects of changes Identify areas for resource deployment Design efficient and cost-effective systems Can maintain better control over experimental conditions than real system Can evaluate system on slower or faster time scale than real system Disadvantages Difficulty in estimating error. May be very expensive and time consuming to build simulation Easy to misuse simulation by â€Å"stretching† it beyond the limits of credibility Problem especially apparent when using commercial simulation packages due to ease of use and lack of familiarity with underlying assumptions and restrictions Slick graphics, animation, tables, etc. may tempt user to assign unwarranted credibility to output Monte Carlo simulation usually requires several runs at given input values Contrast: analytical solution provides exact values Research Papers on Incorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in Capital Investment Projects.The Project Managment Office SystemResearch Process Part OneAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementOpen Architechture a white paperRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesPETSTEL analysis of IndiaCapital PunishmentInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males

Friday, February 21, 2020

National and Global Identity in The Inheritance of Loss Essay

National and Global Identity in The Inheritance of Loss - Essay Example The key argument to be propounded within the course of the essay is that from the impressions of The Inheritance of Loss one has to conclude that the development of ‘global’ identity in non-Western societies is generally restricted to wealthier, more affluent and cosmopolitan classes of those societies, while the vast majority of population remains wedded to national identities, making a cultural bridge between these two social layers rather significant one. The nature and causes of existence of such cultural drift are fundamentally conditioned by the discrepancies generated in the course of twin processes of globalization and decolonization. Even though the decolonization and the growth in importance of the ‘Third World’ nations such as India have led to progressive shifts in the balance of forces within the global arena, it is still evident that the modern globalized world is still based on cultural patterns and assumptions that are directly inherited from the times of undisputed Western hegemony. The global identity, as expressed in the dominant models of consumption, education, etc., remains inherently Western, despite all attempts at making it more diverse and inclusive. Even though the very concept of â€Å"culture† has always been historically conditioned1, it is still evident that the vast majority of modern cultural identities are less prone to uprooting and homogenization than it is often assumed in various transnationalist concepts of world politics and culture. The globalization and the formation of the numerous layers of transnational migrants, voluntary and forced, permanent and temporary, shifted the balance from the maintenance of traditional identities, of national and local dimensions, to the construction and deconstruction of the global, homogeneous identity. However, as may be evidenced from The Inheritance of Loss, the situation may be more nuanced and difficult than can be judged from ‘common-senseâ⠂¬â„¢ representations of these processes. The growing trends for cultural integration and economic migration, despite being important for the general process of globalization, do little to mask the remaining chasms between the representatives of upper strata of non-Western societies and their compatriots remaining generally tied to cultural habits and traditions that still reign supreme over the people living in modern time. The Inheritance of Loss testifies to this very situation. The major characters of the novel are in their own way expressions of the aforementioned dichotomy. The two groups of the characters, each representing a respective social class, embody the controversies generated by globalization and de-localization. The Judge Patel and his granddaughter Sai represent the two generations of upper-class cosmopolitanism and geographical and educational mobility. While they may differ among themselves in subtleties of cultural perceptions, both of these characters are disti nguished by intense interest and self-identification with the non-Indian cultural environment – an Anglicized, respectable, upper-middle class world that is both connected with the Indian tradition, albeit of British Raj variety, and deeply estranged from it. Sai’s recollections of her upbringing in the Catholic Church and the secular and non-traditional lifestyle of her parents are indicative of that. While the secularism was not inherent in Indian